Under their rule, Armenia was devastated and plundered.
The Jalayirid sultanate lasted about fifty years, until disrupted by Tamerlane's conquests and the revolts of the "Black Sheep Turks" or Karakoyunlu Turkmens. After Tamerlane's death in 1405, there was a brief attempt to re-establish the sultanate in southern Iraq and Khuzistan. The Jalayirids were finally eliminated by Karakoyunlus in 1432.
As a result of struggle between Akkoyunlu and Karakoyunlu tribes, some territories of the region had been under their alternate rule. Some coins minted by the Jalayir, Karakoyunlu and Akkoyunlu dynasties are known. The collection of the Central Bank of Armenia includes one silver coin with Arab inscription of Akkoyunlu dynasty minted in Ani.
Silver coin of Uzun Hasan from Akkoyunlu dynasty minted in Ani
By the middle of the 15th century, nomadic Ottoman tribes gained power and captured Constantinople, making the Byzantine Empire, which survived for nearly 1000 years, fall. Small silver coins were minted in the territory of Western Armenia at that time.
The Eastern Armenia, meanwhile, came under the rule of Persian conquerors, the dynasties of Safavids, Afsharids, Zands and Qajars. Silver coins 1 Shahi, 2 and 5 Shahi, Abbasi coins as well as copper city Fuluses – were in circulation at that time. Some rulers, especially Shah Hossein from the Safavid dynasty, ordered to mint rectangular coins. These were minted in Erivan (Yerevan), Nakhijevan and Ganja.
Description of coins
The coins of Persian rulers were of the same type: they carried Arab inscriptions. Some showed animals and legends. The coins were minted in huge amounts and were later found buried across Armenia. Iranian rulers issued silver and copper city coins, as each city, including Erivan, minted its own coins. These types of coins featured the images of peacock, camel, monkey and lion, which later became the symbol of the Persian Empire along with the sun (known as Lion and Sun symbol).
Persian copper city coins minted in Erivan
Some sources say that Yerevan Brandy Company was built in the vicinity of the Erivan mint that was located in the territory of Sardar palace.
Gold coins were uncharacteristic for that time.
Coins of Ottoman sultans of different value – Akce, Altin, Para, Kurus – minted in Erivan, Erzrum, Ganja as well as in Kars and Van during the later periods.
Description of coins
The coins of the Ottoman sultans featured inscriptions in Turkish. Some of them carry Tughra, an intricate decorative device that served as the imperial monogram of the Ottoman sultans and was the ultimate symbol of their power.
The constant struggle for power and capture of territories gave birth to ‘defector-coins’. When Ottoman sultans seized territories in Transcaucasia, they ordered to mint their own coins, as it happened in Erivan and Ganja.
Silver coin of Ottoman sultan Ahmed III minted in Erivan
The material was prepared in cooperation with Gevorg Mughalyan, the numismatist of the Central Bank of Armenia.